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《現代漢語詞典》展現中國發展變革

來源:chinadaily 編輯:Kelly ?  VIP免費外教試聽課 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

In China, if a primary or middle school student wants a reference book, the Modern Chinese Dictionary will definitely be at the top of the shopping list.

在中國,如果一個中小學生想要一本參考書,《現代漢語詞典》肯定是首選。
In mid-September, the dictionary launched its mobile app to offer more convenient services for users and enrich their reading experience, according to Yu Guilin, director of the Chinese language editing center of the Commercial Press.
商務印書館漢語編輯中心主任余桂林表示,9月中旬,該詞典推出了手機應用程序,為使用者提供更便捷的服務,豐富他們的閱讀體驗。
With a far-reaching influence in learning the Chinese language, the Modern Chinese Dictionary has sold more than 70 million copies globally since its first edition came out in 1978, the same year China began its reform and opening up.
自1978年首次出版以來,《現代漢語詞典》已在全球售出7000多萬冊,對漢語學習產生了深遠的影響。同一年,中國開始改革開放。
But it was a long and uphill journey for compilers to create the dictionary in Mandarin Chinese from scratch. They started the project in the 1950s when most dictionaries on the market were written in Classical Chinese and had been outdated.
但是對于編纂者來說,從零開始編寫漢語詞典是一個漫長而艱難的過程。他們在20世紀50年代開始編寫,當時市面上大多數詞典都是用文言文編寫的,已經過時。
"Telegraph" was among more than 56,000 entries in the first edition of the dictionary, new to Chinese at that time.
“電報”是首版《現代漢語詞典》收錄的超過5.6萬個詞條之一,這在當時還是新鮮事物。
Li Xiangguo, 72, recalled the heyday of the telegraph when he worked as a public servant in northwest China's Shaanxi province in the early 1980s. At the time, Chinese people delivered messages mainly through telegraph.
72歲的李向國(音)回憶起20世紀80年代初電報的全盛時期,當時他在中國西北的陜西省當公務員。當時,中國人主要通過電報傳遞信息。
"Telephone sets were not widely available in the whole county. Telegraphers were very busy tapping on the keys of the telegraph machines every day," Li said.
他說:“當時,電話機在全縣并不普及。電報員每天都忙著收發電報。”
Long gone are the days when people mustered enough patience to wait hours, days or weeks for their messages to get through. Nowadays, messages can be delivered through a few taps on a handheld screen.
人們耐心地等待數小時、數天或數周才能收到信息的日子已經一去不復返了。如今,只需在手持設備的屏幕上輕敲幾下就可以傳遞信息。
The change has been reflected in the dictionary. In the sixth edition of the Modern Chinese Dictionary, the new term "cellphone" was added.
這一變化已反映在詞典中。《現代漢語詞典》第六版增加了“手機”一詞。
As Lyu Shuxiang, the late chief editor of the dictionary put it, the modern dictionary should keep up with the times through revisions.
正如已故的詞典主編呂叔湘所說,現代的詞典應該通過不斷的修訂與時俱進。

《現代漢語詞典》展現中國發展變革.jpg

Through rapid economic growth and drastic social change, the Modern Chinese Dictionary has been revised every six to seven years. Seven editions have been published since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949.

由于經濟的快速增長和社會的劇烈變化,《現代漢語詞典》每六到七年就會修訂一次。自1949年中華人民共和國成立以來,這部詞典已經出版了七次。
In the version published in 1996, which had over 61,000 entries, there were many new words, phrases and idioms, such as "self-employed individual," "commercial residential building" and "taxi-hailing," which emerged with the rise of the market-oriented economy since China's reform and opening up.
1996年出版的版本有超過6.1萬個詞條,其中有許多新詞、短語和習語,如“個體經營者”、“商品房”和“打車”,這些都是改革開放以來隨著市場經濟的興起而出現的。
Influenced by Western culture, some English words and acronyms including "KTV" and "DVD" have also found their way into the Modern Chinese Dictionary.
受西方文化影響,“KTV”、“DVD”等英語詞匯和縮略詞也被收錄進《現代漢語詞典》。
The day he got his first DVD player has stuck with Gao Zhijun for a long time. He spent more than 2,000 yuan, about three-month salary, on a DVD player in 1997 when this device was accessible but still expensive in China.
高志軍(音)一直都忘不了他買到第一臺DVD播放機的那一天。1997年,他花了2000多元買了一臺DVD播放器,這大約是他三個月的工資,當時這種設備在中國有售,但價格昂貴。
"My family was very excited and watched the same movie three times in one day," he said. "Since then we often invited friends to watch movies at our home."
“我的家人非常興奮,一天之內把同一部電影看了三遍,”他說。“從那時起,我們經常邀請朋友來家里看電影。”
"We pay special attention to emerging words and phrases in the society and will collect them through combined efforts of humans and machine," said Tan Jingchun, a researcher with the Institute of Linguistics under Chinese Academy of Social Sciences who is in charge of the compilation of the dictionary's latest edition.
“我們特別注意社會中出現的新詞和流行語,借助于機器將它們收集起來,”負責最新版詞典編纂的中國社會科學院語言研究所研究員譚景春說。
Researchers use self-developed software to find out new words in various databases and on the internet and select possible entries for the dictionary.
研究人員使用自主研發的軟件在各種數據庫和互聯網上查找新詞,并為詞典選擇備選詞條。
"Whether a new phrase can be included in the dictionary is decided by several rounds of experts' discussions. We are very prudent in making decisions," he said.
譚景春說:“一個新詞是否能被收錄是專家經過幾輪討論后決定的。我們在做決定時非常謹慎。”
Over time, outdated expressions have been removed, while new words and new meanings have sprung up in the 21st century, especially in the internet era.
隨著時間的推移,過時的表達方式已經被淘汰,而新的詞匯和新的含義在21世紀如雨后春筍般涌現,尤其是在互聯網時代。
Chinese online users soared from 620,000 in 1997 to 854 million in June 2019, while the internet penetration rate climbed to 61.2 percent.
中國互聯網用戶從1997年的62萬飆升至2019年6月的8.54億,互聯網普及率攀升至61.2%。
"It is noticeable that the impact of the internet is ubiquitous in the Modern Chinese Dictionary," Tan said. "QR code" was added in the latest edition of the dictionary published in 2016.
譚景春說:“值得注意的是,互聯網的影響在《現代漢語詞典》中無處不在。”2016年最新出版的詞典中加入了“二維碼”一詞。
Zhao Feng, a 31-year-old internet company employee in Beijing, scan QR codes at least 10 times per day. From activating a shared bike and buying breakfast to communicating on social media apps, the popularity of QR codes is beyond his imagination.
31歲的趙峰(音)是北京一家互聯網公司的員工,他每天至少掃描10次二維碼。從激活共享單車、購買早餐到在社交媒體應用上交流,二維碼的普及超出了他的想象。
In the latest 1,800-page edition of the dictionary, internet buzz words have also been included, such as "Yanzhi" for "looks" and "Xueba" referring to "straight-A student."
在最新一期1800頁的《現代漢語詞典》中,一些網絡流行語也被收錄其中,比如“顏值”,“學霸”。
"Changes of dictionary entries not only reflect the subtle development of the vocabulary and mentality of Chinese people, but also record the evolution of the era," Tan said.
譚景春說:“詞典詞條的變化不僅反映了詞匯和中國人心態的微妙發展,也記錄了時代的變遷。”

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linguistics [liŋ'gwistiks]

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n. 語言學

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accessible [æk'sesəbl]

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adj. 可得到的,易接近的,可進入的

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popularity [.pɔpju'læriti]

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n. 普及,流行,名望,受歡迎

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prudent ['pru:dənt]

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adj. 謹慎的,有遠見的,精打細算的

 
evolution [.i:və'lu:ʃən]

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n. 進化,發展,演變

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impact ['impækt,im'pækt]

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n. 沖擊(力), 沖突,影響(力)
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patience ['peiʃəns]

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